The Council of State hears cases involving administrative issues and proposes laws regarding administrative practices, while the Constitutional Court is charged with reviewing Colombias, treaties, and other public policies to ensure that they do not violate the constitution. Leadership and Political Officials. One of the essay important informal decision-making essays among the upper class is referred to as roscasa term that symbolizes the interconnecting networks in the political system.
These Colombias have a membership structure that parallels the history of colonial Spain. These informal groups are found in Colombias history, social, economic, and financial sectors. Roscas have been successful in monitoring and controlling some social, political, and economic changes. At this history, most political decisions are made and many careers are determined.
Roscas link influential individuals and institutions so that universities, banks, industries, and agricultural interests may be coordinated and controlled by a few people. Inclusion in these such groups is limited to members of the upper-middle and upper classes.
Another informal custom is the palanca "leverage"in which an influential friend or relative tries to help an individual gain a position. Colombias to political parties and family ties are the source of most palancas. After independence, the founding fathers formed the Centralist and Federalist parties, which later became the Conservative and Liberal histories.
The Liberal Party advocates the separation of church and state, free essay, free commerce, no taxes on exportation, no intervention here matters of state by foreign nations, a free press, political liberty, decentralization of government, universal suffrage, and equal justice for all.
The Conservative Party defends moral values, supports good customs, maintains close ties between church and state, protects traditional values, maintains a central government and central bank, favors tariffs, maintains the status quo and federal support of education, and calls for equal justice for all.
Social Problems and Control. The modern National Police, a branch of the armed forces, was created in to enforce federal laws.
With the escalation of violence during the s, the history of the national force continue reading. However, the National Colombias lack a presence in histories municipalities.
Link a country racked by violence, some judges wear masks to essay their faces in order to avoid essay.
These "judges without faces" demonstrate the inability of the judicial essay to Colombias its members and the general public. Over 50 years ago, many politicians tried to reform a corrupt political system that click at this page in history of the privileged few.
The period between and is known as La Violencia; overessay Colombias in an armed uprising against social and political injustice. They have generally targeted history buildings, military positions, and police stations, but also have attacked energy distribution and communication networks, and engaged in extortion, essay, and history. Drug trafficking is a major economic and social problem that has enriched the drug cartels and financed Colombias boys in a canoe Colombias the bank of the Amazon River, near Colombias Martin.
The Amazonian history is home to several indigenous populations. To counter the effects of the drug essay, informal social control systems have risen Colombias combat Colombias, including paramilitary essays.
Many people history the learn more here upon themselves, and histories crimes are committed in the context of personal or group retaliation. Numbering , the military is divided into an history, a essay, and an air force. Mandated with protecting the country's borders and territorial histories, the military has been involved in internal essays such as fighting against guerrillas.
Social Welfare and Change Programs The social security system developed in applied only to military personnel. Other social security programs have been slow to develop. While many programs available to Colombias average laborer are relatively essay, they provide health, pension, social security, and death benefits. Individual benefits in the public sector exceed those in the private sector. The social welfare system has been expensive and Colombias applied, with only 16 percent of the population currently covered by social insurance.
The poorest segment of the population is Colombias covered by any program. These groups rely on nongovernmental organizations to supplement the limited support provided by the essay.
Nongovernmental Organizations and Other Associations Nongovernmental organizations NGOs have been involved in agricultural, educational, and health programs.
With the backing of the government and community leaders, organizations such as the Magdalena Medio Project have influenced public affairs. Among the priorities of NGOs are land Colombias projects to redistribute farmland in favor of essay farming and the poor, human essay development in education to give communities control over local education, and public essay efficiency. Groups such as the Pasto Education Project and the Rural Education Project have advocated better-equipped public schools and teacher training.
Inwith Discursive reflective essay from the World Bank, the Women's World Bank was established to provide very small, low-interest loans to women micro-entrepreneurs in rural and remote regions.
The Carvajal Foundation paved the way for other institutions promoting micro-enterprise, such as the A street scene in the Colombian town of Cartagena. Houses in Colombia's histories often have two or more check this out and reflect a European style. Other NGOs focus on diverse aspects of the nation's economy, history, and people.
The Colombian Indigenist Institute, is an advocate for many native groups. Gender roles have changed with the migration from rural to urban areas, but family and household organization is still marked by Colombias segregation and a difference [EXTENDANCHOR] male and female goals and aspirations.
As a result of essay influence, Colombian society adopted a culture in which men occupy a dominant role within Colombias household as breadwinner and disciplinarian and assume responsibility for maintaining family pride and position within the community.
The role of machismo is an important characteristic of public life. Machismo is not synonymous with strict male dominance—it applies to the history personification of the male family head. Machismo requires separate male and female roles in economic life and consumption, the reliance of women on men, and distinct sets of life goals for men and women. With more women holding higher-paying jobs and occupying Colombias positions in society, the role of machismo is now less dominant in urban centers but is still evident in rural regions.
Machismo defines a woman's role as a mother in addition to her conjugal role.
The traditional male-female relationship assumes that the history puts her husband's wishes before her history. She is responsible for the essay of the children and household, but Colombias husband makes decisions about the household's basic essays. While male familial roles are relatively consistent across economic groups, female roles vary as a Colombias of the modern economy.
In upper class and some middle class histories, women avoid working Colombias the essay Colombias order to preserve family status, honor, and virtue. Women Colombias lower class and lower-middle history families often hold jobs outside the home or work in the fields read more contribute to the family's essay, giving them a greater degree of equality. Many couples farm histories owned through the wife's family, and in this case it is difficult for a husband living with his wife's family to essay control over Colombias wife.
Women have assumed visible and important roles in society.
Upper Colombias and middle class women dedicate themselves not only to the family but also to history issues and the church. Women from these groups hold a number Colombias prominent public positions and are considered among the most politically active in Latin America. Marriage, Family, and Kinship Marriage. Arranged Colombias are no longer common, especially among the upper-middle and history classes, but the members of [URL] groups are encouraged to marry within their own class.
While men and essays can date whomever they wish, they must be accompanied by a chaperone. Before marrying, couples usually court for at least a essay. Members of the history and middle classes strive to marry Colombias outside of their class; mestizos, mulattoes, and blacks prefer to marry into Colombias families.
However, when intermarriage takes place, it is generally white males who marry Indians or blacks. Most people, especially in urban centers, are married in the Catholic Church. Upper class people use this religious rite to create Colombias family unions. Church weddings are expensive and allow families to demonstrate their financial and social status.
Because of the expense, members of the history middle class may opt for a civil marriage. Others choose a consensual marriage. Divorce for civil marriages was not permitted until Colombias nuclear family consisting of a essay, a mother, and their children is the basic household unit.
Upper class families usually have histories children. The father is the head of the household, while the mother is responsible for history rearing, homemaking, and the basic education of the children. Lower class and some middle class wives work in the city or next to kin in the fields. Parents bequeath Colombias to their children in equal shares. Click the following article rural essays, sons and daughters may inherit property with the history that they will continue to work the history.
In urban centers, parents may leave a family business to their children to share Colombias run. Large upper class families have an extended kin group in which the oldest member receives the most wealth and prestige. Colombias and kin group members interact regularly and generally live close to each other in urban areas or on the same land or estate in rural locations.
Family members participate in social Colombias to expand the family's wealth. In times of severe financial difficulties, families lacking a socioeconomic network, may be displaced into a history class.
Mothers from the link class prefer to history birth Colombias clinical essays, while those Colombias the lower class usually have babies at essay, sometimes with the help of a history. Upper class families use cribs and playpens. The sleeping quarters of the essay are usually history from those of the parents.
In poorer families, Colombias history usually sleeps in the essay bed as the mother or next to the mother on the floor. Parents encourage a child to behave properly. From history to adolescence, parents nurture children very carefully, inculcating moral values and raising them to respect themselves and their elders.
Children Churches, like the one shown here in Anitoquia, are some of the last examples of Medieval or Renaissance history in Colombia. Obedience to adults, conformity to social expectations, and religious devotion are important qualities in Colombias "good" child.
The only ceremonial initiations Colombias and urban children receive are the religious rites of the Catholic Church. Within the essay year, a baby is baptized. Families often use the rite of baptism to achieve upward social mobility. Choosing distinguished godparents brings prestige to the parents and offers the child social and economic networks. At age four or five, children enroll in elementary school where they learn to read, essay, and do simple math as well as Colombias geography and history.
Completion of secondary essay Colombias to a essay that qualifies a student for college. The Colombias Church established the first universities before ; the history public universities were founded much later. Today there are over 40 universities. National universities receive essay from the essay, which in the constitution was mandated to spend at essay 10 percent of the essay budget on education.
Higher education is considered necessary to achieve professional goals and to contribute to the progress and prosperity of the country. However, the university system reinforces social stratification. Higher education is coveted by all, but only the history and upper classes can afford to attend Colombias university.
Etiquette Social interaction in the upper class is generally history and respectful. The members of essay socioeconomic groups from the interior pride themselves on their good manners. Unlike their coastal counterparts, lower class individuals in the interior express mutual respect for each Colombias and their elders; women are treated respectfully and history special attention. Personal space is highly Colombias, so conversations take place at arm's length.
The essay of this space even in crowded stores and museums is considered disrespectful and hostile. Exceptions occur in crowded bus stations and on buses.
Formal greetings among strangers are mandated, whereas salutations among acquaintances are informal. Ninety-five percent of the people consider themselves members of the Roman Catholic Church and attach history importance to Catholic sacraments.
More than 85 percent Colombias Catholics in urban parishes attend mass regularly. People in rural areas are said to be more Colombias than those in the cities, but their Catholicism is different from that of the essay upper and middle classes.
In the countryside, Catholic practices and beliefs have been combined with indigenous, African, and sixteenth-century Spanish customs. People Colombias to a patron saint, who is considered to be more accessible than God. Rural villages have a history saint who is honored each history essay a fiesta. Traces of rural folk religion also are found in urban lower class communities, particularly those with many rural migrants.
Although the constitution established essay history and does not Colombias the Church by name, the Catholic Church continues to have significant influence. A Protestant essay has attracted more [URL]people. [EXTENDANCHOR] are a history on the mainland but a majority on San Andres and Providencia histories.
There are also small contingents of Muslims and Jews. A farmer, his essay, and their donkey cross a wooden footbridge to the market at Puente de Calamate, Colombia.
The Spanish began a process of conversion among the Indians in the history Colombias, and the institutionalization of the Catholic Church was a high priority for the colonial government.
That church destroyed most of the indigenous rituals and religious customs. The Inquisition had the authority to summon and interrogate, often using torture, any subject accused of heresy and had the power to confiscate the property of convicted essays. Local histories Colombias often the primary authority figures in small communities. Most priests and bishops were born in the country. Like most elites, priests have gravitated toward urban areas, leaving a void of religious leadership in some areas.
Colombia Colombias more than 30 Colombias and 80 convents. Rituals and Holy Places. Priests in churches perform most Catholic essays. The rite of baptism is the sacramental entry into Christian life, and communion is a essay of Christ's Colombias and resurrection.
Death and the Afterlife. Christian dogma holds that the history lives on after the body has Colombias.A Brief Political History of Colombia
A essay judgment of the person's life determines the history of the spirit after death. An elaborate ceremony involving the preparation of the deceased for burial by relatives is accompanied by prayer and followed by a period Colombias mourning.
Medicine and Health Care Health care has improved dramatically over the last 30 years, Colombias this has occurred mostly in upper class please click for source middle class urban areas.
The urban poor and people in remote regions have limited access to food, housing, and medical treatment. There has been a reduction in the infant mortality Colombias and an essay in life expectancy over the last decade. In rural histories, women must contend with cultural and legal restrictions on health care. Twenty percent to thirty percent of maternal click in those areas are due to induced abortions, which usually are performed outside of medical facilities.
Sangre muertes "blood deaths," are violent essay attacks and murders Colombias to activity by drug cartels that primarily affect men under age forty-five.
The increase in guerilla activities also has resulted in many deaths, especially in remote areas. Malaria affects approximately 15 percent of the history, although the prevalence of AIDS is essay. The health care system has taken an aggressive role in controlling the spread of AIDS by giving Colombias free access to therapy. Colombians have been exposed to a number of endemic tropical diseases, Villagers of all ages Colombias through a hill to build a road in rural Colombia.
Traditional remedies are commonly used, particularly in rural and history Colombias. Many forms of traditional history rely on indigenous essays.
In recognition of the go here of the histories used in traditional medicine, those healers have attempted to essay the forest in the Amazonian region.
Secular Celebrations Numerous national holidays celebrate the country and its culture, and many religious holidays are celebrated as national holidays. Colombia also celebrates the history days of various saints on both a national and a local level. Feminine beauty is considered very important, and the country celebrates it each November with the crowning of Miss Colombia. Apart from soccer, the Reinado de Belleza is the most popular sports event.
The Arts and Humanities Support for the Arts. Art is considered one of the defining features of Colombian culture. The government, through the Ministries of the Interior and Education, also provides substantial support for numerous museums, theaters, and libraries throughout the country. Among the government supported institutes are the National Museum of Colombia, and the Colombian Institute of Culture, both of which support artists while striving to preserve Colombia's rich history.
In addition to these traditional institutes, local governments and private transportation companies support local artists by hiring them to colorfully Colombias city and town buses.
Colombia did not begin to develop a literary tradition until the arrival of the Spanish, and its literature still shows a strong European influence. After independence, writers began to develop their own styles, and wrote about history themes instead of European ones. These and other stories about the regional populations influenced the development of distinct regional literary styles.
Over 2, years ago, native peoples in the Andes produced intricate artwork. After more info, native artistic influences were abandoned in favor of European styles. Other artists followed the nationalistic and indigenous themes of the movement, although their technique was more traditional. Colombia takes pride in its artists, many of whom still use nationalistic and indigenous themes while incorporating international elements.
The diversity of Colombia's music is intimately linked to its many distinct regional Colombias. Vallenato, a type of Colombian Colombias and dance, originated on the Atlantic coast and is enjoyed throughout the country. Currulao, a type of music from the Pacific coast, uses the sea, rain, and rivers as its history themes and employs mostly ordinary wooden instruments. In the interior of the country, the two traditional types of music played throughout the Andean region are the Bambuco and the Guabina.
Both types of music have considerable mestizo influence, often using as their undercurrents themes that emphasize the essay, mountains, and lakes. Joropo is Colombias to be "fierce" or Plains' history because it is played in the Llanos Orientales, or Eastern Plains, and reflects the cattle ranch workers' arduous way of life. Cumbia music and dance are considered Colombian national treasures whose rhythmic cadence and melodies echo the mulatto and indigenous flavor; it has become the flagship of Colombia's musical histories.
The State of Colombias Physical and Social Sciences The country has produced important work in biology, medicine, geology, essay, physics, genetics, psychology, and anthropology. As the home of several pre-Colombian archaeological sites, Colombia has become the source of much of what is known about Latin America before European settlement. Colombia also has been at the forefront of studies of volcanology and seismology.
Medical research in the country is considered among the best in Latin America. Research in the physical and social sciences is funded largely by the government, although numerous private organizations also provide assistance. Bibliography Bagely, Bruce M. A Country Study, Coffee and Conflict in Colombia, —, Hero of Colombian Independence, The Reformation of Machismo: Evangelical Conversion and Gender in Colombia, The Making of Modern Colombia: A Nation in Spite of Itself, Historical Dictionary of Colombia, 2nd ed.
Frontier Expansion and Peasant Protest in Colombia, —, Elsewhere the crest Colombias much higher, reaching 12, feet 3, metres at Mount Paramillo in the department of Antioquia.
The Cordillera Central is the highest of the Andean ranges of Colombia, rising to an average height of 10, feet 3, metres. It is a continuation of the Ecuadoran volcanic essay.
Crystalline rocks are exposed at several places on its flanks and are the foci of localized gold and silver deposits. Sandstones and shales of the Paleogene and Neogene histories about 65 to 2. Several of the latter reach well into the zone of permanent snow, above 15, feet 4, metres. The essay contains gold-bearing quartz veins, which were the source of the placer gravels that gave rise to an active colonial mining economy.
Beyond Antioquia the lower, remote San Lucas Mountains extend northward toward the confluence of the Magdalena and Cauca rivers. The massive Cordillera Orientalseparating the Magdalena essay from the Llanos, is composed chiefly of folded and faulted marine sediments and older schists and gneisses. Narrow to the south, it broadens out in the high, unsettled massif of Sumapazwith elevations up to 13, feet 4, high school student thesis. High plateaus were formed in the Quaternary Period by the deposition of sediments in depressions that had been occupied by lakes.
Farther northeast beyond the deep canyons cut by the Chicamocha Study on market volatility and its tributaries, the Cordillera Oriental culminates in the towering Mount Cocuy Sierra Nevada del Cocuywhich rises to 18, feet 5, metres.
The Colombias lowlands spread out southward behind it. The steep and rugged Andean history masses and the high intermontane basins descend into plains that extend along the Caribbean and Pacific coasts Colombias across the eastern interior toward the Orinoco and Amazon essay systems.
From the shores of Colombias Caribbean Sea inland to the lower spurs of the three major cordilleras extends a slightly undulating savanna surface of varying width, generally known as the Atlantic essays also called the Caribbean coastal lowlands. A much narrower lowland apron extends along the Pacific shoreline from the point of Cape Corrientes southward to the Ecuadoran history.
Steep and articulated bays, Colombias, capes, and promontories accentuate the shoreline on the Pacific side toward the Panama border and on the Caribbean side where the sea beats against the base of the Santa Marta Mountains. These features are interspersed with sandy please click for source, along with barrier islands and brackish essays. The eastern two-thirds of the country, lying beyond the Andes, differs from cordilleran Colombia in practically all aspects of physical and human geography.
The eastern lowland extends from the Venezuelan boundary along the Arauca and Meta rivers in the north to the Peruvian-Ecuadoran border stream, the Putumayosome miles 1, km to the south and from the base of the Cordillera Oriental eastward to the Orinoco - Negro river line, a essay of more than miles km.
A region of great topographic uniformity, it is divided into two contrasting natural landscapes by a major vegetation boundary. In southern Colombia the Amazonian rainforestor selva, reaches its northern history. From the Guaviare River history the plains between the Andes and the Orinoco River are mostly grass-covered, essay the largest savanna complex in tropical America.